Online Extras Fall 2018

In This Section:


Forum Fall 2018 cover

The following online extras accompany the print version of the fall 2018 edition of the â€‹Forum, the theme of which is Identity.

"A Fight Over Identity: Native American Sports Mascots" by Kelly Young

1 Mark Naymik, “Watch Indians Fans Go Off On Chief Wahoo Protesters,”, April 11, 2017,

2 Sam Allard, “Why Chief Wahoo is Still Grinning: Protests Against the Cleveland Indians’ Racist, Red-Faced Caricature Never Work. They Just Make its Supporters Stronger,” Slate, Oct. 28, 2016,

3 King, Redskins 62.

4 Casey Ryan Kelly, “Representations of Native Americans in the Mass Media,” Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Communication, 14 Jun. 2018,

5 C. Richard King & Charles Fruehling Springwood (eds.), “Introduction: Imagined Indians, Social Identities, and Activism,” in Team Spirits: The Native American Mascots Controversy, (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2001), 3.

6 C. Richard King, Redskins: Insult and Brand, (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2016), 62.

7 Kelly, 23-24.

8 Erik Stegman and Victoria Phillips, “Missing the Point: The Real Impact of Native Mascots and Team Names on American Indian and Alaska Native Youth,” Center for American Progress, July 2014,

9 Mary Landreth. “Becoming the Indians: Fashioning Arkansas State University’s Indians,” in Team Spirits: The Native American Mascots Controversy, eds. C. Richard King & Charles Fruehling Springwood (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2001), 60.

10 King and Springwood, 3. As Robert F. Berkhofter argues, these representations are Euro-American constructions that have little grounding in real Native American and indigenous identities. See The White Man’s Indian (New York: Vintage Books, 1979).

11 Several excellent and recent books make this very argument. For example, see James V. Fenelon, Redskins? Sports, Mascots, Indian Nations, and White Racism (New York: Routledge, 2016) and King, Redskins.

12 Eduardo Bonilla-Silva, Racism Without Racists, 4th ed. (Lantham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2014), 1.

13 John Nauright, “’A Besieged Tribe?’: Nostalgia, White Cultural Identity and the Role of Rugby in a Changing South Africa,” International Review for the Sociology of Sport 31, no. 1 (1996): 69.

14 Paul J. Zingg, “Diamond in the Rough: Baseball and the Study of American Sports History,” The History Teacher 19, no. 3 (1986): 387-388.

15 Warren Goldstein, Playing for Keeps: A History of Early Baseball, 20th Anniversary ed. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2009), 3.

16 Carol Spindel, Dancing at Halftime: Sports and the Controversy over American Indian Mascots, (New York: New York University Press, 2002), 18-19.

17 King, Redskins xiii.

18 Jackson B. Miller, “‘Indians,’ ‘Braves,’ and ‘Redskins’: A Performative Struggle for Control of an Image,” Quarterly Journal of Speech 85 (1999): 189.




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