Footnotes: "Taking the Measure of Graduation Rates in Big-time College Sports"

In This Section:

Publications and Resources

by Richard M. Southall

1Six-Year Grad Rate at All-time High.” (2011, October 25). ESPN College Sports.

2The Bootleg’s 2011 Graduation Rate Analysis.” [Supplemental material]. (2011, April 22). The Bootleg. Southall, R. M., Eckard, E. W., and Nagel, M. S. (2011-2012). “2011-2012 Adjusted Graduation Gap Reports.” College Sport Research Institute, Chapel Hill, N.C.

3 Rotherham, A. J. (2011, April 7). “Low Graduation Rates: It’s Not Just Student-Athletes.” Time.

4 Jessop, A. (2011, March 21). “Highest Net Income among Athletic Departments.” The Business of College Sports.

5USA Today College Football Coach Salary Database, 2006-2011.” USA Today. “USA Today - NSLI Coaches’ Salary Database Salaries." USA Today.

6 Smith, E. (2009). Race, Sport and the American Dream (2nd ed.). Durham, N.C.: Carolina Academic Press.

7 Quoted from Hutchins, R. M. (1938 December 3). “Gate Receipts and Glory.” Saturday Evening Post, pp. 23, 73-74, 76-77. In the article, Hutchins laid out what would become his reasons for subsequently shutting down the football program at University of Chicago.

8 “Matching Major Infractions Cases - 241 Cases.” (2012). Retrieved using the NCAA Legislative Services Database - LSDBi. “Reports of the Knight Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics.” (1999), p. 4. Retrieved from the Knight Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics website. The Library of Congress. (n.d.). “Bill Summary and Status: 101st Congress (1989-1990) S.580.”

9History of Academic Reform.” (2011). Retrieved from National Collegiate Athletic Association website.

10Growth in Academic Support for Athletes.” (2008, September 5). [Supplemental material]. The Chronicle of Higher Education.

11About the NCAA.” (2011). Retrieved from National Collegiate Athletic Association website.

12 Allen L. Sack and Ellen J. Staurowsky, College Athletes for Hire: The Evolution and Legacy of the NCAA’s Amateur Myth, Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1998, page 4.

13Amateurism.” (2010). (NCAA President’s Briefing Document). Retrieved Sept. 17, 2011, from National Collegiate Athletic Association website.

14 Ibid.

15Protecting the Collegiate Model.” (2010). (NCAA President’s Briefing Document). Retrieved Sept. 17, 2011, from National Collegiate Athletic Association website.

16 Ibid.

17 For instance, click on the “Academics” tab of the NCAA website and the landing page “NCAA’s Commitment to Academics” opens up. Retrieved from NCAA website.

18 "NCAA Graduation Success Rates Point to Increased Academic Success for Most Division I Student-Athletes, Teams.” (2005, December 19). [Archived NCAA News Release]. Retrieved from National Collegiate Athletic Association website.

19NCAA Grad Rates Hit All-Time High: Single-Year Graduation Success Rate Reaches 82 Percent.” (2011, October 25). [Archived NCAA News Release]. Retrieved from National Collegiate Athletic Association website.

20 The Associated Press. (2012, January 19). “Record 65 Underclassmen in NFL Draft: Despite New Rookie Wage Scale, Previous High of 56 Easily Topped.” Retrieved from NCAA/Turner Interactive website. “2011 Draft Tracker.” (2011-2012). [Supplemental material]. MLB.com.

21 Goodman, J. (2012, April 10). “2012 End-of-Year Updated Transfer list: 425-Plus and Growing.” [Supplemental material]. CBSSPORTS.com. The Associated Press. (2012, May 17). “Transfer Rules Won’t Be Easily Lifted.” ESPN.com.

22 Nyad, D. (1989, May 28). “View of Sport; How Illiteracy Makes Athletes Run.” The New York Times.

23 Dexter Manley played football for four years at Oklahoma State. He did not graduate, being 50 credits short of fulfilling requirements.

24 Nora, A., and Cabrera, A. F. (1993). “The Construct Validity of Institutional Commitment: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis.” Research in Higher Education, 34, 243-251. Tinto, V. A. (1997). “Classrooms as Communities: Exploring the Educational Characteristics of Student Persistence.” Journal of Higher Education, 20, 65-72.

25 National Collegiate Athletic Association. (2012). “Aggregate Federal Graduation Rate Data Report."

26 Eckard, E. W. (2010). “NCAA Athlete Graduation Rates: Less Than Meets the Eye.” Journal of Sport Management, 24(1), 45-58.

27 Hosick, M. B. (2010, October 12). “NCAA Grad Rate a Success by Any Measure.” [NCAA Resources-Latest News Archive]. Retrieved from National Collegiate Athletic Association website.

28 Ibid at 24.

29Complete College America. (2011, September). “Time Is the Enemy: The Surprising Truth about Why Today’s College Students Aren’t Graduating ... and What Needs to Change.” p. 2.

30de Vise, D. (2011, September 27). “Report Exposes Hidden Failure of Part-Time Students.” College Inc. [Web log post]. The Washington Post.

31 Southall, R. M., Eckard, E. W., and Nagel, M. S. (2010-2012). “Adjusted Graduation Gap Reports.” Reports are available on the College Sport Research Institute website.

32 Zagier, A. (2009, December 30). “College Admissions Exceptions Benefit Athletes.” The Huffington Post.

33 National Collegiate Athletic Association. (2012). “Estimated Probability of Competing in Athletics beyond the High School Interscholastic Level.”

34 Information regarding average length of professional sport careers was retrieved from the NFL; Science Daily; and RAM Financial Group.

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