Works Cited: "The Evolution of Military Ethos over the Ages"

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by Peter R. Mansoor

“Remarks by the President at the United States Naval Academy Commencement,” May 24, 2013. The White House. Office of the Press Secretary. Retrieved

2 Steven Pressfield, The Warrior Ethos (Los Angeles: Black Irish Entertainment, 2011), p. 2.

3 Shannon E. French, The Code of the Warrior (Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003), 3.

4 Pressfield, The Warrior Ethos, p. 13.

5 French, The Code of the Warrior, p. 10.

6 Homer, The Iliad, Book V. Retrieved from

7 Ibid., Book XV.

8 Ibid.

9 Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War, 2:42. Retrieved from

10 Maurice Keen, Chivalry (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1984), p. 42.

11 Geoffroi de Charny, A Knight’s Own Book of Chivalry, trans. Elspeth Kennedy (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2005), pp. 47-51.

12 Ibid., “Introduction,” p. 22.

13 Ibid., p. 24.

14 Inazo Nitobe, Bushido: The Soul of Japan (New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1905), p. 79.

15 Ibid., p. 85.

16 French, The Code of the Warrior, p. 225.

17 Ibid., p. 221.

18 Conrad’s story can be read here or at See also Jamie Frater (Nov. 8, 2007), “Top 8 Remarkable Duels,” General Knowledge. History. Listverse. Available at

19 Ben C. Truman, The Field of Honor (New York: Fords, Howard, & Hulbert, 1884), p. 12.

20 Lewis Sorley, Honor Bright: History and Origins of the West Point Honor Code and System (Boston: Learning Solutions, 2009), p. 10.

21 Ibid., p. 26.

22 Ibid., p. 7.

23 George F. Eliot, Sylvanus Thayer of West Point (New York: Julian Messner, 1959), pp. 134n.

24 Earl Blaik, “A Cadet under MacArthur,” Assembly (Spring 1964), p. 8.

25 MacArthur graduated at the top of his 1903 class.

26 Sorley, Honor Bright, p. 43.

27U.S. Army War College, “Study on Military Professionalism,” June 30, 1970, pp. 12-18.

28 Ibid., p. 12.

29 Sorley, Honor Bright, p. 107. Of the 152 dismissed cadets, 98 were allowed to return a year later.

30 Rikihei Inoguchi, Tadashi Nakajima, and Roger Pineau, The Divine Wind: Japan’s Kamikaze Force in World War II (Annapolis, Md.: U.S. Naval Institute Press, 1994), p. 19. Onishi survived the war, only to commit ritual suicide the day after Japan’s unconditional surrender.

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