Footnotes: "Can American Women Have It All and Be Happy?"

In This Section:

Publications and Resources

by Ling-Yi Zhou

1 Patten, E., & Parker, K. (2012, April 19). A gender reversal on career aspiration: Young women now top young men in valuing a high-paying career. Retrieved from Pew Research Center - Pew Social and Demographic Trends website.

2 Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2011). Table 11. Employed persons by detailed occupation, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey. Retrieved from

3 Solis, H. L., & Hall, K. (2011, December). Table 24. Contribution of wives’ earnings to family income, 1970-2009; Table 25. Wives who earn more than their husbands, 1987-2009. Women in the labor force: A databook (BLS Report 1034, pp. 77-78). Retrieved from

4 Boushey, H., & O’Leary, A. (Eds.), with Skelton, K., Paisley, E., Miller, L., & Nichols, L. (2009, October). The Shriver report: A woman’s nation changes everything. Retrieved from A Study by Maria Shriver and the Center for American Progress website. (Also available at

5 Bruns, A. (2012, November 16). 113th Congress welcomes benches full of women. PBS Newshour. Retrieved from

6 Manning, J. E., & Shogan, C. J. (2012, November 26). Women in the United States Congress: 1917-2012. Retrieved from CRS Report for Congress (RL 30261, p. 106), Congressional Research Service (7-5700) website.

7 Center for American Women and Politics, Eagleton Institute of Politics, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey. (2012, July). Women appointed to presidential cabinets. Retrieved from Rutgers University.

8 Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics. (n.d.). Table A-10-1. Number and percentage of actual and projected undergraduate enrollment in degree-granting postsecondary institutions, by sex, attendance status, and control of institution: Selected years, fall 1970-2021. The Condition of Education, Participation in Education, Postsecondary Enrollment. Retrieved from NCES. (Note. Projections are based on data through 2010.)

9 Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics. (2012). Fast facts: Degrees conferred by sex and race. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. The Condition of Education 2012 (NCES 2012-045), Indicator 47.

10American Bar Association. (2012, September). A current glance at women in the law. Retrieved from

11 National Women’s Law Center. (2012, December 13). Women in the federal judiciary: Still a long way to go. Retrieved from

12 National Science Foundation, National Center for Science, Engineering Statistics. (2012, October). Data tables. Retrieved from Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering website.

13 Gibbs, N. (2009, October 14). What women want now. Time. Retrieved from The State of the American Woman website. (Also available here.)

14 Cann, C. (2012, June 14). Title IX at 40: Smashing down the field house doors. Retrieved from American Association of University Women Dialog website.

15 Patten, E., & Parker, K. (2011, December 22). Women in the U.S. military: Growing share, distinctive profile. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from Pew Social and Demographic Trends website.

16 Stevenson, B., & Wolfers, J. (2009). The paradox of declining female happiness. American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, 1(2), 190-225. Retrieved from Harvard University.

17 General Social Survey (GSS).

18 Roper Center - Public Opinion Archives. Website with the information about the “Virginia Slims American Women’s Opinion Polls.”

19 Monitoring the Future.

20 Sigelman, C. K., & Rider, E. (2012). Life-span human development (7th ed.). Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth , Cengage Learning.

21 Tenenbaum, H. R., & Leaper, C. (2003). Parent-child conversations about science: The socialization of gender inequities? Developmental Psychology, 39(1), 34-47.
(Also available here.)

22 Leaper, C., & Bigler, R. (2004). Commentary. Gendered language and sexist thought. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 69(1), 128-142. doi:10.1111/j.0037-976x.2004.00283.x Also: Gelman, S. A., Taylor, M. G., & Nguyen, S. (2004.) Mother-child conversations about gender: Understanding the acquisition of essentialist beliefs. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 69(1).

23 Bem, S. L. (1974). The measurement of psychological androgyny. Journal of Counseling and Clinical Psychology, 42(2), 155-162.

24 Martin, C. L. (1990). Attitudes and expectations about children with nontraditional and traditional gender roles. Sex Roles, 22(3/4), 151-165. (Also available here.)

25 Feinman, S. (1981). Why is cross-sex-role behavior more approved for girls than for boys? A status characteristic approach. Sex Roles, 7, 289-300.

26 Ridgeway, C. L. (2001). Gender, status, and leadership. Journal of Social Issues, 57(4), 637-655.

27 Hansson, R. O., O’Connor, M. E., Jones, W. H., & Mihelich, M. H. (1980). Role relevant sex typing and opportunity in agentic and communal domains. Journal of Personality, 48(4), 419-434. Also refer to Notes 24 and 25.

28 Refer to Note 16.

29 Refer to Note 27.

30 Rule, N. O., & Ambady, N. (2008). The face of success: Inferences from chief executive officers’ appearance predict company profits. Psychological Science, 19(2), 109-111. (Also available here.)

31 Rule, N,. & Ambady, N. (2009). She’s got the look: Inferences from female chief executive officers’ faces predict their success. Sex Roles, 61(9/10), 644-652. doi:10.1007/s11199-009-9658-9 (Also available here.)

32 Rule, N. O., & Ambady, N. (2011) Face and fortune: Inferences of personality from managing partners’ faces predict their law firms’ financial success. The Leadership Quarterly, 22, 690-696. (Also available at Stanford University or the University of Toronto.)

33 Statistics vary. Catalyst, which calls itself “the leading nonprofit membership organization expanding opportunities for women and business,” put the figure at 12 percent for the “50 best law firms for women” in an October 2012 article, “Women in Law in the U.S.”. Roberta D. Liebenberg, a lawyer and senior partner at Fine Kaplan and Black in Philadelphia, Pa., in an undated editorial, “Breaking through the Glass Ceiling - Attaining Equality for Women Lawyers,” for U.S. News & World Report, cited six percent at “the nation’s 200 largest firms.”

34 Eagly, A. H., & Carli, L. L. (2003). The female leadership advantage: An evaluation of the evidence. The Leadership Quarterly, 14, 807-834.doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2003.09.004 (Also available here.)

35 Koenig, A. M., Eagly, A. H., Mitchell, A. A., & Ristikari, T. (2011). Are leader stereotypes masculine? A meta-analysis of three research paradigms. Psychological Bulletin, 137(4), 616-642. doi: 10.1037/a0023557 (Also available here.)

36 Anzia, S. F., & Berry, C. R. (2011). The Jackie (and Jill) Robinson effect: Why do congresswomen outperform congressmen? American Journal of Political Science, 55(3), 478-493. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5907.2011.00512.x (Also available here.)

37Solis, H. L., & Hall, K. (2011, December). Table 16. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers in current dollars by race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, and sex, 1979-2010 annual averages; Table 17. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers 25 years of age and over by educational attainment and sex, 2010 annual averages; Table 18. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by detailed occupation and sex, 2010 annual averages; Table 19. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by industry and sex, 2010 annual averages. Women in the labor force: A databook (BLS Report 1034, pp. 51-68). Retrieved here.

38 Macpherson, D. A., & Hirsch, B. T. (1995). Wages and gender composition: Why do women’s jobs pay less? Journal of Labor Economics, 13(3), 426-471. (Also available here.)

39 Belliveau, M. A. (2012, July/August). Engendering inequity? How social accounts create vs. merely explain unfavorable pay outcomes for women. Organization Science, 23(4), 1154-1174. Abstract retrieved here. (doi:10.1287/orsc.1110.0691)

40 Soares, R., Bonaparte, S., Campbell, S., Margolin, V., & Spencer, J. (2012, December 11). 2012 Catalyst Census: Fortune 500 (Research Project). Retrieved from Catalyst Knowledge Center website. Also: Women CEOs of the Fortune 1000.

41 Crosby, F. J. (1982). Relative deprivation and working women. New York: Oxford University Press.

42 Walker, I., & Smith, H. J. (Eds.). (2002). Relative deprivation: Specification, development, and integration. U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

43 Osborne, D, Smith, H. J., & Huo, Y. J. (2012). More than a feeling: Discrete emotions mediate the relationship between relative deprivation and reactions to workplace furloughs. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38(5), 628-641. doi:10.1177/0146167211432766

44 D’Ambrosio, C., & Frick, J. (2007). Income satisfaction and relative deprivation: An empirical link. Social Indicators Research, 81(3), 497-519. doi:10.1007/s111205-006-0020-0. (Also available here.)

45 Huffman, M. L., & Cohen, P. N. (2004.) Occupational segregation and the gender gap in workplace authority: National versus local labor markets. Sociological Forum, 19(1), 121-147. (Also available here; here; and here.)

46 Loscocco, K. A., Robinson, J., Hall, R. H., & Allen, J. K. (1991). Gender and small business success: An inquiry into women’s relative disadvantage. Social Forces, 70(1), 65-85.

47 U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration. (2010, October). Women-owned businesses in the 21st century. Retrieved here.
(Interested readers may also refer to the following reports: American Express OPEN. (2012, March 21). Women-owned businesses among the leaders in job creation and revenue growth, according to New American Express research. Retrieved here; American Express OPEN. (2012, March). The state of women-owned businesses report commissioned by American OPEN: A summary of important trends, 1997-2012. Retrieved here.)

48 Brandt, M. J. (2011). Sexism and gender inequality across 57 societies. Psychological Science, 22(11), 1413-1418. doi:10.1177/0956797611420445

49 Goudreau, J. (2012, May 21). A new obstacle for professional women: The glass escalator. Forbes. Retrieved from Forbes.

50 Williams, C. L. (1992). The glass escalator: Hidden advantages for men in the “female” professions. Social Problems 39(3), 253-267.

51 Brescoll, V. K., Dawson, E., & Uhlmann, E. L. (2010). Hard won and easily lost: The fragile status of leaders in gender-stereotype-incongruent occupations. Psychological Science, 21(11), 1640-1642. doi:10.1177/0956797610384744
(Also available here - Interestingly, this “glass cliff” effect is also true of men working in contexts believed to be for women. Thus, it is difficult for both sexes to make headway in fields that are perceived by people as more appropriate for the opposite gender.)

52 Turner, C. (2012, August 27). Do women fear power and success? WomensMedia, Forbes. Retrieved here.

53 O’Neill, O. A., & O’Reilly III, C. A. (2011). Reducing the backlash effect: Self-monitoring and women’s promotions. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 84(4), 825-832. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8325.2010.02008.x (Also available here.)

54 Marano, H. S. (2002, December 1). The fear of success. Psychology Today. Retrieved here.

55 Diekman, A. B., & Goodfriend, W. (2006). Rolling with the changes: A role congruity perspective on gender norms. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 30(4), 369-383. doi:10.1111/j.1471-6402.2006.00312.x

56 Phelan, J. E., Moss-Racusin, C. A., & Rudman, L. A. (2008). Competent yet out in the cold: Shifting criteria for hiring reflect backlash toward agentic women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 32(4), 406-413. doi:10.1111/j.1471-6402.2008.00454.x

57 Horner, M. S. (1972). Toward an understanding of achievement-related conflicts in women. Journal of Social Issues, 28(2), 157-175. Abstract retrieved here

58 Refer to Notes 53, 55, 56, and 57.

59 Quast, L. (2012, November 12). Masculine norms in the workplace could be holding women back. Forbes. Retrieved here.

60 Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. (2012, June 22). American Time Use Survey - 2011 Result (BLS News Release USDL-12-1246). Retrieved here.

61 Refer to Note 60.

62 Waldfogel, J. (2001, September). Family and medical leave: Evidence for the 2000 surveys. Monthly Labor Review, 124(9), 17-23. Retrieved here.

63 Huffington Post Canada. (2012, May 22). Maternity leaves around the world: Worst and best countries for paid maternity leave. Retrieved here.

64 Mohr, A. (2012, May 16). Maternity leave basics: Canada vs. the U.S. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved here.

65 Zhao, J., Settles, B. H., & Sheng, X. (2011). Family-to-work conflict: Gender, equity and workplace policies. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 42(5), 723-738.

66 Newman, S. (2011, April 6). The great divide: Working moms vs. childless women. Psychology Today, Singletons. Retrieved here.

Readers may also be interested in:

Correll, S. J., Benard, S., & Paik I. (2007). Getting a job: Is there a motherhood penalty? American Journal of Sociology, 112(5), 1297-1338. Retrieved here.

Gerson, K. (1985). Hard choices: How women decide about work, career, and motherhood. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press.

Peterson, K. S. (2002, April 8). Having it all - Except children? Creating a life. USA Today. Retrieved here.

67 Chodorow, N. (2000). Family structure and feminine personality. In M. Plott & L. Umanski (Eds.), Making sense of women’s lives: An introduction to women’s studies (pp. 95-115). Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

68De Marneffe, D. (2004.) Maternal desire: On children, love, and the inner life. New York: Little, Brown and Company. You may read this book [DX Reader version] online here.

69 Conrad, R. (2009, January-March). Desiring relation: Mothers’ and children’s agency, subjectivity, and time – Commentary on Daphne de Marneffe’s maternal desire. [Review of the book Maternal Desire, by Daphne de Marneffe]. Studies in Gender and Sexuality 10(1), 12-20. doi:10.1080/15240650802580407

70 Refer to Note 65.

71 Newman, S. (2011, October 12). Opting out of having children: Who is and why. Psychology Today. See also Schembari, M. (2009, August 7). Professional women choosing to remain childless. The Glass Hammer. And refer to Note 66.

72 Slaughter, A.-M. (2012, July/August). Why women still can’t have it all. The Atlantic.

73 Barzilay, A. R. (2012). Back to the future: Introducing constructive feminism for the twenty-first century - A new paradigm for the family and medical leave act. Harvard Law and Policy Review, 6, 407-435. (Also available here)

74 Branch, K. (1994). Are women worth as much as men?: Employment inequities, gender roles, and public policy. Duke Journal of Gender Law and Policy, 1, 119-157. (Also available here.)

75 Mathews, T. J., & Hamilton, B. E. (2002, December 11). Mean age of mother, 1970-2000. National Vital Statistics Report, 51(1), 1-14. Retrieved from National Vital Statistics System, Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website.

76 Martin, J., Hamilton, B., Venture, S. J., Osterman, M., Wilson, E. C., & Mathews, J. J. (2012, August 28). Births: Final data for 2010. National Vital Statistics Report, 61(1), 1-71. Retrieved from National Vital Statistics System, Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website. Also refer to Note 73.

77 The U.S. Department of Commerce, Economic and Statistics Administration, the Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget. (2011, March). Women in America: Indicators of Social and Economic Well-Being.

78 Mayo Clinic. (n.d.). Pregnancy after 35: Healthy moms, healthy babies.

79 Stein, Z., & Susser, M. (2000, November). The risks of having children in later life. Western Journal of Medicine, 173(5), 295-296.

80 Miller, L. (2011, September 25). Parents of a certain age - Is there anything wrong with being 53 and pregnant? New York Magazine.

81 Refer to note 13.

82 The Women in Literature and Life Assembly, National Council of Teachers of English. (2002). Guidelines for gender-fair use of language. Retrieved here.

83 Moen, P. (2011). From ‘work-family’ to the ‘gendered life course’ and ‘fit’: Five challenges to the field. Community, Work & Family, 14(1), 81-96. doi:10.1080/13668803.2010.532661

84 Slaughter, A.-M. (2012, July/August). Why women still can’t have it all. The Atlantic. Retrieved here.

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